عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Tahakkom literally means mocking but in rhetoric terms means satire and sever criticism, which outwardly praises one, but inwardly humiliates and rebukes him/her. Tahakkom exists in most of poets’ works, but unquestionably, it can be claimed that no one but Hafez has used this literary figure of speech for flaying his opponents and no one but Jami has been dexterous in using this figure of speech based on Hafez’s style. Here a question raises about how can demonstrate that the mentioned claim is true? In answering this question firstly, we mention some similarities between Hafez and Jami’s love poems (ghazal); then we analyze existing Tahakkoms in their love poems.
Hafez used Tahakkom for criticizing his intellectual and governmental opponents and disseminating his blaming ideas. By the same token, Jami in spite of his privileged position by Soltan Hossien Bayghra and his wise vizier Amir Alishir Navayi, used Tahakkom for expressing realties, attacking hypocritical hermits and making Naghshbandiyeh ideas prevalent. In this research, not only some of the researchers’ views about Hafez and Jami’s disposition have been expressed, but also four common themes in their Tahakkoms following the first as uselessness of pharisaism, the second as the hypocrisy of most preachers and hermits, the third as hermits’ being deceived by their worship and ignoring their faults and the last as preference of slyness to asceticism and Sufism, have been mentioned.
Key Words: Tahakkom, ghazal, Hafez, Jami